Here's my notes about muscle groupings into phasic / tonic category. I took them from three different lists. The first one is from Dvorak's book 'Manual Medicine' in which he says his data are based on research by Trischler 1981. The second list is from my Pegasus anatomy cards in which no source is given for their information. The third list is from H.D.Neumann: Manuelle Medizin, Springer Verlag, 1989. My synopsis of those 3 lists looks like that:

CLEAR TONIC (in all 3 lists)

  • hams
  • iliopsoas
  • rect. fem
  • tensor f.l.
  • triceps surae
  • pect.maj. sternal part
  • trapezius pars desc.
  • lev.scap.
  • erect. spinae lumbar & cervical parts

CLEAR PHASIC (in all 3 lists)

  • tib. ant.
  • vast. med. & lat.
  • glut. max & med.
  • rhomboids
  • trapezius pars asc. & horiz.


TONIC (but only mentioned in two of the lists):

- quadr. lumb (Neumann, Pegasus)
- sartorius (Neumann, Pegasus)
- piriformis (Neumann, Pegasus)
- short adductors (Neumann, Dvorak)
- flexors of the hand (Neumann, Pegasus)

Tonic (but only mentioned in 1 list)

- s.c.m. (Neumann)
- biceps brachii (Pegasus)



PHASIC (but only mentioned in two of the lists)

- serr. ant. (Neumann, Pegasus)
- belly wall (Neumann, Pegasus)
- long adductors (Neumann, Pegasus)
- short hand & foot muscles (Neumann, Pegasus)

Phasic (but only mentioned in 1 list)
- longus colli & capitis (Neumann)
- omohyoideus (Neumann)
- gluteus min. (Dvorak)
- pectoralis major pars abd. (Dvorak)
- triceps brachii (Dvorak)

Conflicting listings

- erector spinae middle thoracal part (Dvorak: phasic; Neumann&Pegasus: all erectors as tonic)
- scaleni (Dvorak&Neumann: tonic; Pegasus: phasic)